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Pellet stove, how it works

Pellet stove, how it works



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Pellet stove, how it works: operating mechanism of pellet stoves explained in a simple way. Pellet stoves, go to the operation to choose it well and improve maintenance operations and heat production, efficiency

How does a pellet stove work? On the market you can find different types ofpellet stoves,each with different peculiarities but all with the same basic operating mechanism: biomass (pellets) is burned to produce heat to be supplied in the home.

The main types ofpellet stovesthat we find on the market are:

  • Pellet stoves
  • Pellet thermo stoves
  • Pellet boilers
  • Pellet heating cookers (pellet stove with kitchen)

These devices can be programmable or non-programmable, they can have integrated timers, digital displays for control or the possibility of remote management through the use of smartphone or SMS applications. Some types work exactly like a boiler and can be managed with the wifi chronothermostat. For more information on the functions offered by pellet stoves and the different types of equipment to heat the house with pellets, we refer you to the pages:

  • Difference between stoves, thermo stoves and boilers and pellets
  • – Pellet stove with kitchen
  • – Programmable pellet stoves

Thepellet stovesthey owe theirspopularitythe type of fuel. Thepellets, with the same weight and heat produced, it takes up much less space than coal or wood. It is produced with a manufacturing processeco-friendly, it is an economical fuel and above all that produces few combustion waste. For a correct functioning of the pellet stove it is necessary to choose a high quality biomass (pellet). To find out which is the best pellet to use, I recommend reading the article“Pellets, certifications and quality“.

Pellet stove, how it works

Apellet stoveit is made up of several compartments. In particular we have:

  • a pellet tank
  • an auger
  • an air dispenser (introduces air into the burner for combustion)
  • a fan / convector
  • heat exchangers
  • gas extractor
  • a firebox or combustion chamber
  • a door for access to the combustion chamber
  • a collector for combustion waste
  • a flame arrestor
  • a resistance for automatic ignition
  • any ducting system connected with the other rooms of the house in which to transport the heat produced by combustion

Thepellet stovesrecently introduced to the market feature aelectrical centerable to accurately dose the appropriate amount of air to make combustion occur as efficiently and cleanly as possible. The same control unit doses the quantity of pellets that must flow from the tank to the combustion chamber.

Pellet stove, how does it work?From these few introductory notes, understand how thepellet stoveit's pretty simple.

The electrical control unit balances the rate of biomass administration (pellets, fuel) with the supply of air and the expulsion of the fumes produced by the combustion itself. While the fumes produced are expelled by means of a fan connected to a flue or an excretory duct, the heat is released into the surrounding environment or in the rooms connected to the pellet stove through a ducting system.

The maintenance and cleaning of the pellet stove depends a lot on the type of biomass used. There are godspelletswhich produce a maximum ash residue of 0.7% of the total weight. In other words, for each kilogram of pellets burned, only 7 grams of ash are produced with a calorific value of 4,700 - 5,000 kcal.

How much heat does a pellet stove produce? The amount of heat depends on thenominal power of the pellet stove, the heat output of the firebox, the useful heat output and the heating power of the pellets used.

Sizing of the pellet stove

Understanding how the pellet stove works will give you indications if you are looking for, for example:

  • pellet stove for an apartment of 80 square meters
  • pellet stove for 100 sqm apartment
  • pellet stoves of adequate size for heating a room or the entire house

If you need a pellet stove to heat an entire apartment, you will need an ad hoc ducting system. For sizing, you can help yourself with a very simple but indicative calculation: if your house is not well insulated, this assessment could underestimate your real needs due to heat loss caused by badly insulated windows and buildings.

To calculate the power of a pellet stove needed to heat one or more rooms, you can use this calculation example:

assuming an apartment of 100 square meters and a ceiling height of 2.50 meters, the volume of the apartment will have to be calculated by multiplying the square meters by the height expressed in meters.

So: 2.50 m. x 100 m2 = 250 cubic meters

The volume expressed in cubic meters must be multiplied by an average coefficient that represents the degree of heat loss in your home. The lower the coefficient, the more well insulated your house will be. Typically this coefficient ranges from 0.040 (for a well insulated house) to 0.060 (for older houses). We, for convenience, will employ a middle ground with a coefficient of 0.050.

So: 250 cubic meters x 0.050 = 12 kW

Thus, this calculation will lead you to know the power needed to heat an entire apartment or a single room.


Video: Best Small Pellet Stoves. HVAC Training 101 (August 2022).